Include patients with IDD in routine immunization programs targeting high-risk populations for influenza and S pneumoniae infections.223, 227
Offer immunization to those at risk
Offer Hepatitis A and B immunization to all at-risk patients, such as those who require long-term, potentially hepatotoxic medications or who live in group residential settings.225, 228
Screen for infectious diseases
Screen patients for infectious diseases according to guidelines for high-risk populations and other special risk factors (eg, group residence, sexual practices, IV drug use).229
Reduce risk factors for infections
Reduce risk factors for invasive lung infections, such as by supporting safe feeding practices, positioning to enable secretion clearance, and respiratory therapy.226
Perform a head to toe exam
If a patient manifests changes in behaviour or mental status, perform a head-to-toe examination to detect infection. Alert caregivers to signs and symptoms of infections.
223. Burton C, Vaudry W, Moore D, Bettinger JA, Tran D, Halperin SA, et al. Burden of seasonal influenza in children with neurodevelopmental conditions. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2014;33(7):710-4.
224. Smith M, Peacock G, Uyeki TM, Moore C. Influenza vaccination in children with neurologic or neurodevelopmental disorders. Vaccine. 2015.
225. Yen CF, Lin JD. Factors influencing administration of hepatitis B vaccine to community-dwelling teenagers aged 12-18 with an intellectual disability. Res Dev Disabil. 2011;32(6):2943-9.
226. Khasawneh R, Wallen J, Davies HD. Chapter 134: Infectious diseases, immunizations and universal precautions. In: Rubin IL, Merrick J, Greydanus DE, Patel D, editors. Rubin and Crocker 3rd ed. Springer; 2016. p. 1711-28.
227. Wilson B, Jones KB, Weedon D, Bilder D. Care of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities: Down syndrome. FP Essent. 2015;439:20-5.
228. Public Health Agency of Canada. Canadian immunization guide: Part 3 vaccination of specific populations Public Health Agency of Canada. 2016. Accessed 2016 Nov 6.
229. Severtson SG, Hedden SL, Martins SS, Latimer WW. Patterns of cognitive impairments among heroin and cocaine users: The association with self-reported learning disabilities and infectious disease. J Learn Disabil. 2012;45(2):139-50.