Physical Inactivity and Obesity

Physical Inactivity and Obesity

Monitor weight

Monitor weight trends regularly and assess risk status using body mass index, waist circumference, or waist-hip ratio measurement standards.117-119

Strongly Recommended

Empirical Ecosystem Experiential

Physical inactivity and obesity are prevalent among people with IDD and are associated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, constipation, osteoporosis, early mortality, and other health risks. Being underweight, with its associated health risks, is also common.115, 116

Counsil regarding diet and activity

Counsel patients and their caregivers annually regarding targets for an optimal diet and level of physical activity using general population guidelines by age. Advise patients regarding possible changes to their daily routines to meet these targets.120, 121

  Strongly Recommended

Empirical Ecosystem Experiential

Physical inactivity and obesity are prevalent among people with IDD and are associated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, constipation, osteoporosis, early mortality, and other health risks. Being underweight, with its associated health risks, is also common.115, 116

Modifiable risks

Address modifiable risk factors for obesity such as medications and environmental or social barriers to optimal diet and physical activity.120, 121

  Strongly Recommended

Empirical Ecosystem Experiential

Environmental and social factors often contribute to obesity and low physical activity rates.122, 123

Health promotion

For anyone who is not meeting diet and physical activity targets, refer to interprofessional health promotion resources (eg, dieticians, support workers and community programs adapted for people with IDD).125-127

  Strongly Recommended

Empirical Experiential

A health promotion program can improve attitudes towards physical activity and satisfaction with life,124 but people with IDD often have difficulty finding programs that will accommodate their needs.

115. Hsieh K, Rimmer JH, Heller T. Obesity and associated factors in adults with intellectual disability. J Intellect Disabil Res. 2014;58(9):851-63.

116. Grondhuis SN, Aman MG. Overweight and obesity in youth with developmental disabilities: A call to action. J Intellect Disabil Res. 2014;58(9):787-99.

117. Casey AF. Measuring body composition in individuals with intellectual disability: A scoping review. J Obes. 2013:article ID 628428.

118. Health Canada. Canadian guidelines for body weight classification in adults [Website]. Ottawa: Health Canada. 2003. Accessed 2017 Aug 29.

119. Temple V.A., Foley J.T., Lloyd M. Body mass index of adults with intellectual disability participating in special olympics by world region. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research. 2014;58(3):277-84.

120. Spanos D, Hankey CR, Boyle S, Koshy P, MacMillan S, Matthews L, et al. Carers’ perspectives of a weight loss intervention for adults with intellectual disabilities and obesity: A qualitative study. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research. 2013;57(1):90-102.

121. Kuijken NMJ, Naaldenberg J, Nijhuis-van der Sanden MW, Van Schrojenstein-Lantman de Valk HMJ. Healthy living according to adults with intellectual disabilities: Towards tailoring health promotion initiatives. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research. 2016;60(3):228-41.

122. Blick R.N., Saad A.E., Goreczny A.J., Roman K., Sorensen C.H. Effects of declared levels of physical activity on quality of life of individuals with intellectual disabilities. Res Dev Disabil. 2015;37:223-9.

123. Robertson J., Emerson E., Baines S., Hatton C. Obesity and health behaviours of british adults with self-reported intellectual impairments: Cross sectional survey. BMC Public Health. 2014;14(1).

124. Ogg-Groenendaal M, Hermans H, Claessens B. A systematic review on the effect of exercise interventions on challenging behavior for people with intellectual disabilities. Res Dev Disabil. 2014;35(7):1507-17.

125. Brooker K, van Dooren K, McPherson L, Lennox N, Ware R. A systematic review of interventions aiming to improve involvement in physical activity among adults with intellectual disability. J Phys Act Health. 2015;12(3):434-44.

126. Carraro A, Gobbi E. Exercise intervention to reduce depressive symptoms in adults with intellectual disabilities. Percept Mot Skills. 2014;119(1):1-5.

127. Spanos D, Melville CA, Hankey CR. Weight management interventions in adults with intellectual disabilities and obesity: A systematic review of the evidence. Nutr J. 2013;12:132,2891-12-132.

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